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My discourse proceeds in the following way: each term is sustained only in its topological relation with the others.

Jacques Lacan | Book XI: The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis


  • LX:1 | Intentional Arc

    Let us therefore say rather, borrowing a term from other works, that the life of consciousness - cognitive life, the life of desire or perceptual life - is subtended by an ‘intentional arc’ which projects round about us our past, our future, our human setting, our...

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  • LX:2 | The Place I Have Come To

    In the beginning, there was not the origin. There was the place. There are perhaps two or three people here who have some idea about this same old story of mine. Place is a term I often use, because there are often references to place in the field that my discourses - or...

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  • LX:3 | Transition from the Ordinary Rational Knowledge of Morality to the Philosophical

    There is no possibility of thinking of anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be regarded as good without qualification, except a good will. Intelligence, wit, judgment, and whatever talents of the mind one might want to name are doubtless in many...

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  • LX:4 | Questioning Builds A Way

    In what follows we shall be questioning concerning technology.  Questioning builds a way.  We would be advised, therefore, above all to pay heed to the way, and not to fix our attention on isolated sentences and topics.  The way is a way of thinking.  All ways of thinking, more...

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  • LX:5 | Thingly Aspect of the Artwork

    Works of art are familiar to everyone. Architectural and sculptural works can be seen installed in public places, in churches, and in dwellings. Art works of the most diverse periods and peoples are housed in collections and exhibitions. If we consider the works in their...

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  • LX:6 | Foucault's Objective

    My objective for more than twenty-five years has been to sketch out a history of the different ways in our culture that humans develop knowledge about themselves: economics, biology, psychiatry, medicine, and penology. The main point is not to accept this knowledge at...

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  • LX:7 | The Philosopher

    The philosopher is distinguished from the ignorant man by putting blame on the right person. The first difference between the philosopher and the uneducated man is that the latter says, 'Woe is me for me child, for my brother, woe is me for my father', and the other, if...

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  • LX:8 | Ours / Not Ours

    Of all existing things some are in our power, and others are not in our power. In our power are thought, impulse, will to get and will to avoid, and, in a word, everything which is our own doing. Things not in our power include the body, property, reputation, office,...

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  • LX:9 | Silent Relationship with the Other

    Let us pursue dialogue a little further - and first of all, in the silent relationship with the other - if we wish to understand the most essential power of speech. It is not sufficiently noted that the other is never present face to face. Even when, in the heat of...

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  • LX:10 | Situated Freedom

    The synthesis of in itself and for itself which brings Hegelian freedom into being has, however, its truth. In a sense, it is the very definition of existence, since it is effected at every moment before our eyes in the phenomenon of presence, only to be quickly...

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  • LX:11 | The Public

    The public is a host, more numerous than all the peoples together, but it is a body which can never be reviewed, it cannot even be represented, because it is an abstraction. Nevertheless, when the age is reflective and passionless and destroys everything concrete, the...

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  • LX:12 | Take Care of Yourself

    The precept of the “care of the self” [souci de soi] was, for the Greeks, one of the main principles of cities, one of the main rules for social and personal conduct and for the art of life. For us now, this notion is rather obscure and faded. When one is asked “What is...

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  • LX:13 | Parrhesia

    Etymologically, "parrhesiazesthai" means "to say everything — from "pan" (everything) and "rhema" (that which is said). The one who uses parrhesia, the parrhesiastes, is someone who says everything he has in mind: he does not hide anything, but opens his heart and mind...

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  • LX:14 | Diplomatic Situation

    Leaving the sphere of knowledge for that of life and action, we find modern man coming to grips with ambiguities which are perhaps more striking still. There is no longer a single word in our political vocabulary that has not been used to refer to the most different,...

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  • LX:15 | Principle of Incompletion

    Where human beings are concerned, rather than merely nature, the unfinished quality to knowledge, which is born of the complexity of its objects, is redoubled by a principle of incompletion. For example, one philosopher demonstrated 10 years ago that absolutely objective...

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  • LX:16 | Some Might Say

    Some might say: “Are you not ashamed, Socrates, to have followed the kind of occupation that has led to your being now in danger of death?” However, I should be right to reply to him: “You are wrong, sir, if you think that a man who is any good at all should take into...

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  • LX:17 | The Most Blameworthy Ignorance

    To fear death, gentlemen, is no other than to think oneself wise when one is not, to think one knows what one does not know. No one knows whether death may not be the greatest of all blessings for man, yet men fear it as if they knew that it is the greatest of evils. And...

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  • LX:18 | Apologia

    Even if you acquitted me now and did not believe Anytus, who said to you that either I should not have been brought here in the first place, or that now I am here, you cannot avoid executing me, for if I should be acquitted, your sons would practise the teachings of...

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  • LX:19 | Act

    It is curious enough that neither Freud, nor any of his epigones, ever attempted to remember what is nevertheless within the grasp of everybody concerning the act - let us say, human act, if you like, since to our knowledge there is no other act but the human one. Why is an...

    Read more: LX:19 | Act

  • LX:20 | Socratic Midwifery

    But my art of midwifery, though it has in other respects the same conditions as theirs, differs in these points, that I attend men, not women, and that I inspect the labour of their souls, not of their bodies. The most important skill in our art is, the being able to...

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  • LX:21 | This Permanent Dissonance

    There is no act, no particular experience which exactly fills my consciousness and imprisons my freedom, ‘there is no thought which abolishes the power to think and brings it to a conclusion— no definite position of the bolt that finally closes the lock. No, there is no...

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  • LX:22 | Quest for the Invariant

    Probably there is something deep in my own mind, which makes it likely that I always was what is now being called a structuralist. My mother told me that, when I was about two years old and still unable to read, of course, I claimed that actually I was able to read. And...

    Read more: LX:22 | Quest...

  • LX:23 | Hupomnēmata

    Hupomnēmata, in the technical sense, could be account books, public registers, or individual notebooks serving as memory aids. Their use as books of life, as guides for conduct, seems to have become a common thing for a whole cultivated public. One wrote down quotes in...

    Read more: LX:23 |...

  • LX:24 | Excess and Deficiency

    First of all, it must be observed that the nature of moral qualities is such that they are destroyed by defect and by excess. We see the same thing happen in the case of strength and of health, to illustrate, as we must, the invisible by means of visible examples: excess as...

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  • LX:25 | I Know That I Know Nothing

    I thought that he appeared wise to many people and especially to himself, but he was not. I then tried to show him that he thought himself wise, but that he was not. As a result he came to dislike me, and so did many of the bystanders. So I withdrew and thought to...

    Read more: LX:25 | I...

  • LX:26 | Ideas (Alone and In Their Own Right)

    Now as far as ideas are concerned, if they are considered alone in their own right, without being referred to something else, they cannot, properly speaking, be false. For whether it is a she-goat or a chimera that I’m imagining, it is no less true that I imagine the one...

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  • LX:27 | Semiotics

    At the heart of the semiotic enterprise are systems of conventional signs used for direct communication. These include, first, the various codes used to convey messages composed in an existing natural language, such as English. Morse code, semaphore codes, braille, and...

    Read more: LX:27 |...

  • LX:28 | What I Am

    I don’t feel that it is necessary to know exactly what I am. The main interest in life and work is to become someone else that you were not in the beginning. If you knew when you began a book what you would say at the end, do you think that you would have the courage to...

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  • LX:29 | The Notion of Liberation

    I have always been somewhat suspicious of the notion of liberation, because if it is not treated with precautions and within certain limits, one runs the risk of falling back on the idea that there exists a human nature or base that, as a consequence of certain...

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  • LX:30 | The Analytical Relation

    There is yet another essential trait that is particular to the analytic relation and distinguishes it from any other transferential relation involving a priest, a professor, or a leader. This trait pertains to jouissance and consists precisely in the way in which the...

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  • LX:31 | Efficacious Transference

    In its essence, the efficacious transference which we’re considering is quite simply the speech act. Each time a man speaks to another in an authentic and full manner, there is, in the true sense, transference, symbolic transference – something takes place which changes...

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  • LX:32 | Reflective Understanding

    And now look again, and see what will naturally follow if the prisoners are released and disabused of their error. At first, when any of them is liberated and compelled suddenly to stand up and turn his neck round and walk and look toward the light, he will suffer sharp...

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  • LX:33 | The 'Claro, Pero' Paradox

    After everything we have said it is worth considering whether, if we immediately demand a propositional explanation of the highest idea, we are proceeding in a truly Platonic manner. If we ask in this way we already deviate from the path of authentic questioning. But...

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  • LX:34 | The Body (Is Not An Object)

    The experience of our own body, on the other hand, reveals to us an ambiguous mode of existing. If I try to think of it as a cluster of third person processes - ‘sight’, ‘motility’, ‘sexuality’ - I observe that these ‘functions’ cannot be interrelated, and related to the...

    Read more: LX:34 | The...

  • LX:35 | The Intention to Speak

    We can perceive [...] the essence of normal language: the intention to speak can reside only in an open experience. It makes its appearance like the boiling point of a liquid, when, in the density of being, volumes of empty space are built up and move outwards.  ‘As soon...

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  • LX:36 | Le Monde Perçu

    The world of perception, or in other words the world which is revealed to us by our senses and in everyday life, seems at first sight to be the one we know best of all. For we need neither to measure nor to calculate in order to gain access to this world and it would...

    Read more: LX:36 | Le...

  • LX:37 | If Photography Tends to the Literary

    So much for material matters. Immaterial qualities, from the realms of the subjective, include: perception and penetration; authority and its cousin, assurance; originality of vision, or image innovation; exploration; invention. In addition, photography seems to be the...

    Read more: LX:37 | If...

  • LX:38 | Fertility of the Didactic Action

    You see, there are two ways of applying a discipline which is structured as a teaching. There’s what you hear, and then what you make of it. These two planes do not overlap, but they can be made to join up in a certain number of secondary signs. It is from this angle...

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  • LX:39 | Perception and Critical Thought

    We never cease living in the world of perception, but we go beyond it in critical thought - almost to the point of forgetting the contribution of perception to our idea of truth. For critical thought encounters only bare propositions which it discusses, accepts or...

    Read more: LX:39 |...

  • LX:40 | The Tutelage of Perception

    What then have we learned from our examination of the world of perception? We have discovered that it is impossible, in this world, to separate things from their way of appearing. Of course, when I give a dictionary definition of a table - a horizontal flat surface...

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  • LX:41 | Linguistic Structure of the Unconscious

    Now the concrete and objective data that allow the linguistic structure of the unconscious to be inferred are the external acts of the unconscious. We have already noted that each of the manifestations of the unconscious must be seen, in a formal sense, as a signifier,...

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  • LX:42 | The Act of Naming

    He began by naming, and the thing existed. But clearly, a name alone is unable to establish existence. It must as well be the case that the name is repeated and inscribed in a structure. To name is not simply to attach a name, naming is an act which not only instantiates an element,...

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  • LX:43 | The Lesson Reduction Teaches

    The most important lesson which the reduction teaches us is the impossibility of a complete reduction. This is why Husserl is constantly re-examining the possibility of the reduction. If we were absolute mind, the reduction would present no problem. But since, on the...

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  • LX:44 | Radical Reflection

    He who doubts cannot, while doubting, doubt that he doubts. Doubt, even when generalized, is not the abolition of my thought, it is merely a pseudo-nothingness, for I cannot extricate myself from being; my act of doubting itself creates the possibility of certainty and...

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  • LX:45 | Freedom and Self-Emergence

    But let us make no mistake about this freedom. Let us not imagine an abstract force which could superimpose its effects on life’s “givens” or which cause breaches in life’s development. Although it is certain that a man’s life does not explain his work, it is equally...

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  • LX:46 | The Central Attitude

    Inspired by the paintings of Da Vinci, Valéry described a monster of pure freedom, without mistresses, creditors, anecdotes, or adventures. No dream intervenes between himself and the things themselves; nothing taken for granted supports his certainties; and he does not...

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  • LX:47 | Discourse

    A discourse is that kind of social bond which we will call an agreement, if you like. [...] The least one can say is that everything that is built up between these animals known as humans is constructed, manufactured, and founded on language. [...] We cannot fail to...

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  • LX:48 | Relations of Power

    The analyses I am trying to make bear essentially on relations of power. By this I mean something different from states of domination. Power relations are extremely widespread in human relationships. Now, this means not that political power is everywhere, but that there...

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  • LX:49 | La Mort

    Death belongs to the realm of faith. You’re right to believe you will die. It sustains you. If you didn't believe it, could you bear the life you have? If we couldn't totally rely on the certainty, that it will end, how could you bear all this? Nevertheless, it is only...

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  • LX:50 | The Museum

    [The] Museum’s function, like the library’s, is not entirely beneficent. It certainly enables us to see works that were scattered around the world and engulfed in the cults or civilizations which they sought to ornament as united aspects of a single effort. In this sense our...

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  • LX:51 | The Scope of Ethics

    But first, what is the scope of ethics as such? It does not deal with the whole domain of value. If I enquire into the beautiful or the sublime I am more likely to be doing aesthetics than ethics - though my interest might certainly be ethical as well, in one way or...

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  • LX:52 | Symbolic Order

    Before I leave you, and since one must punctuate, put in a final full stop, to serve you as an orientation table, I will tun once again to the four poles which I have more than once written on the board. I begin with A, which is the radical Other, that of the eighth or...

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  • LX:53 | The Red Ink

    In an old joke from the defunct German Democratic Republic, a German worker gets a job in Siberia; aware of how all mail will be read by censors, he tells his friends: “Let’s establish a code: if a letter you will get from me is written in ordinary blue ink, it is true;...

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  • LX:54 | A Fundamental Quality of an Act

    Lacan draws a distinction between mere ‘behaviour’, which all animals engage in, and ‘acts’, which are symbolic and which can only be ascribed to human subjects. A fundamental quality of an act is that the actor can be held responsible for it; the concept of the act is...

    Read more: LX:54 | A...

  • LX:55 | Sublimation

    Note that no correct evaluation of sublimation in art is possible if we overlook the fact that all artistic production, including especially that of the fine arts, is historically situated. You don't paint in Picasso's time as you painted in Velazquez's; you don't write...

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  • LX:56 | Sōphrōn

    A sōphrōn is a person aware of his limitations in a positive as well as a negative sense: he knows what his abilities and nature do and do not permit him to do. He is a self-controlled man in the sense that he will never want to do what he knows he cannot or should not....

    Read more: LX:56 | Sōphrōn

  • LX:57 | Context and Relevance

    Sperber and Wilson propose that the key to a theoretical understanding of communication - and, indeed, of cognition in general - is provided by the notion of relevance. Thus (Sperber and Wilson, 1986c/1991, p. 586): Our suggestion is that humans tend to pay attention to...

    Read more: LX:57 |...

  • LX:58 | The Thinkpot (Thinking Thoughts At)

    Strepsiades: Fine!  I’m not taking this trip-up lying down.I’ll wing a prayer and go off to the Thinkpot myself for training.But how is an old relic like me,forgetful and lumbering, going to master the artof logic chopping and hairsplitting? {starts walking again} But...

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  • LX:59 | And all will love this ruin in their hearts

    The gods desire to keep the stuff of lifeHidden from us. If they did not, you couldWork for a day and earn a year’s supplies;You’d pack away your rudder, and retireThe oxen and the laboring mules. But ZeusConcealed the secret, angry in his heartAt being hoodwinked by...

    Read more: LX:59 | And...

  • LX:60 | A Kind of Refusal of Understanding

    Commenting on a text is like doing an analysis. How many times have I said to those under my supervision, when they say to me - I had the impression he meant this or that - that one of the things we must guard most against is to understand too much, to understand more than what...

    Read more: LX:60 | A...

  • LX:61 | The World of Perception and the World of Science

    The world of perception, or in other words the world which is revealed to us by our senses and in everyday life, seems at first sight to be the one we know best of all. For we need neither to measure nor to calculate in order to gain access to this world and it would...

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  • LX:62 | More Than I Know

    This is one of the essential things I said [...] analysis can be distinguished from everything that was produced by discourse prior to analysis by the fact that it enunciates the following, which is the very backbone of my teaching - I speak without knowing it. I speak...

    Read more: LX:62 | More...

  • LX:63 | Introduction to the Thing

    Honey is what I am trying to bring you, the honey of my reflections on something that, my goodness, I have been doing for a number of years and which is beginning to add up, but which, as time goes by, ends up not being that much out of proportion with the time you...

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  • LX:64 | that That

    When we are seeking the essence of "tree," we have to become aware that That which pervades every tree, as tree, is not itself a tree that can be encountered among all other trees. (4) Source Heidegger, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays.  Trans....

    Read more: LX:64 | that...

  • LX:65 | Get Off the Bus

    The reader of Lévi-Strauss’s other books who is foolish enough to seek a punch line is likely to be disappointed. The formula that the author often provides at the end of a book, holding it up proudly for us to see, like a cat that brings its master a half-masticated...

    Read more: LX:65 | Get...

  • LX:66 | Anxiety as a Signal

    In order to show you where we are headed, I am going to get well ahead of myself, after which we will backtrack, darting hither and thither like jackrabbits. Where is the analyst situated in the subject’s relationship to desire, in his relationship to an object of desire...

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  • LX:67 | A Desire To Obtain Absolute Difference

    The analyst’s desire is not a pure desire. It is a desire to obtain absolute difference, a desire which intervenes when, confronted with the primary signifier, the subject is, for the first time, in a position to subject himself to it. There only may the signification of a...

    Read more: LX:67 | A...

  • LX:68 | Of Beyond the Pleasure Principle

    I began my lectures this year with the onerous topic of the utilitarians, but the utilitarians are quite right. They are countered with something that, in effect, only makes the task of countering them much more difficult, with a sentence such as “But, Mr. Bentham, my...

    Read more: LX:68 | Of...

  • LX:69 | Activities of a Certain Kind

    Moreover, the same causes and the same means that produce any excellence or virtue can also destroy it, and this is also true of every art.1 It is by playing the harp that men become both good and bad harpists, and correspondingly with builders and all the other...

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  • LX:70 | Virtue Defined: The Differentia

    Of every continuous entity that is divisible into parts it is possible to take the larger, the smaller, or an equal part, and these parts may be larger, smaller, or equal1 either in relation to the entity itself, or in relation to us. The “equal” part is something median...

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  • LX:71 | A Limited But Infinite Path

    But why say that desire is never satisfied, as if psychoanalysis had a pessimistic vision with respect to human aspirations? I can appreciate your reservations. I will answer you by saying that in that place where desire does not attain its goal, I mean where it fails, a...

    Read more: LX:71 | A...

  • LX:72 | Subjectivity and Truth (The Punitive Society)

    In the penal system of the Classical period, one reencounters, mixed together, four great forms of punitive tactics - four forms having different historical origins, each having played if not an exclusive role then a privileged one: 1. exile, cast out, banish, expel...

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  • LX:73 | If the Subjectivity of the Soul is to be Expressed in a Wholly Adequate Manner

    In painting the artistic appearance, in which the inner spiritual sense of beauty exhibits itself, still possesses a material characteristic and subsistence. But if the subjectivity of the soul is to be expressed in a wholly adequate manner, the extended presentation to...

    Read more: LX:73 | If...

  • LX:74 | The Trap of Life and Experience

    The Psychoanalyst’s first task is to listen and to listen carefully. Although this has been emphasized by many authors, there are surprisingly few good listeners in the psychotherapeutic world. Why is that? There are several reasons, some of which are primarily personal...

    Read more: LX:74 | The...

  • LX:75 | The Most Basic Sphere of Concern is Schooling

    The role of the schools is not to create “idiot-specialists” to fill the special needs of different sectors of the national economy, but to develop the individual capabilities of the students in a purposeful way, and to send out into life thoughtful people capable of...

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  • LX:76 | Standing Toe to Toe

    The unconscious, according to Lacan, has to be understood as a chain of signifiers. The central term in this definition is of course, the signifier. This term has to be understood in an active sense: the (linguistic) signifier must be thought of as something that cuts...

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  • LX:77 | Desire Proper to the Analyst

    No one has ever said that the analyst should never have feelings toward his patient. But he must know not only not to give in to them, to keep them in their place, but how to make adequate use of them in his technique. (32) Source Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar of Jacques...

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  • LX:78 | The Individual Myth

    It was exactly this sort of contrast between elements of an individual’s biographical vocabulary and formal, organizing principles that would interest the anthropologist Clause Lévi-Strauss. Although the constituents of a biography or a myth were infinite, why should the...

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  • LX:79 | The Shamans and Sorcerers. The Psychoanalysts. The Artists.

    Since the shaman does not psychoanalyze his patient, we may conclude that remembrance of things past, considered by some the key to psychoanalytic therapy, is only one expression (whose value and results are hardly negligible) of a more fundamental method, which must be...

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  • LX:80 | For in Many Ways Human Nature is in Bondage

    That it is not a science of production [first philosophy] is clear even from the history of the earliest philosophers. For it is owing to their wonder that men both now begin and at first began to philosophize; they wondered originally at the obvious difficulties, then...

    Read more: LX:80 | For...

  • LX:81 | A Snobbish Idiot

    A snobbish idiot goes to an expensive restaurant and, when asked by the waiter: “Hors d’oeuvre?,” he replies: “No, I am not out of work, I earn enough to be able to afford to eat here!” The waiter then explains he means the appetizer and proposes raw ham: “Du jambon...

    Read more: LX:81 | A...

  • LX:82 | Training of the Self By Oneself

    No technique, no professional skill can be acquired without exercise; nor can the art of living, the tekhnē tou biou, be learned without an askēsis that should be understood as a training of the self by oneself. This was one of the traditional principles to which the...

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  • LX:83 | Stultitia

    The practice of the self involves reading, for one could not draw everything from one’s own stock or arm oneself by oneself with the principles of reason that are indispensable for self-conduct: guide or example, the help of others is necessary. But reading and writing...

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  • LX:84 | Pursuit of the Examined Life

    Perhaps the most persuasive reason not to embark on an examined life comes from the feeling that it must already be too late. There seems little point in beginning to scrutinise one’s ethical assumptions when others - more schooled and erudite that we, those privileged...

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  • LX:85 | White

    I've worked out of a series of no's. No to exquisite light, no to apparent compositions, no to the seduction of poses or narrative. And all these no's force me to the "yes." I have a white background. I have the person I'm interested in and the thing that happens between us....

    Read more: LX:85 | White

  • LX:86 | Encouraging an Investment in the Desire to Know

    It would seem that the analyst by repeatedly asking “why?” becomes associated, in certain cases, with a desire to know why. Lacan1 suggested that our general attitude in life is a will not to know: not to know what ails us, not to know why we do what we do, not to know...

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  • LX:87 | The Analyst as Artist

    A fine painter can be thought of as looking at “the same thing” other people look at, seeing something different, and making it visible to us: The painter reveals - renders perceptible - something we had not seen before. In the case of van Gogh, it might be the humanity...

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  • LX:88 | A Dream of a Kind of Criticism

    I can’t help but dream about a kind of criticism that would try not to judge but to bring an oeuvre, a book, a sentence, an idea to life; it would light fires, watch the grass grow, listen to the wind, and catch the sea foam in the breeze and scatter it. It would...

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  • LX:89 | The Suicide

    Nowadays not even a suicide kills himself in desperation. Before taking the step he deliberates so long and so carefully that he literally chokes with thought. It is even questionable whether he ought to be called a suicide, since it is really thought which takes his...

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  • LX:90 | Curiosity

    Curiosity is a vice that has been stigmatized in turn by Christianity, by philosophy, and even by a certain conception of science. Curiosity is seen as futility. However, I like the word; it suggests something quite different to me. It evokes “care”; it evokes the care...

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  • LX:91 | Creative Practices

    People know what they do; they frequently know why they do what they do; but what they don't know is what what they do does. (187) Source Dreyfus, Hubert, Paul Rabinow. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics.  1983.  Notes This is a Michel Foucault quote...

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  • LX:92 | Introduces Presence, Hollows Out Absence

    There is only one resistance, the resistance of the analyst. The analyst resists when he doesn’t understand what he is dealing with. He doesn’t understand what he is dealing with when he thinks that interpreting is showing the subject that what he desires is this...

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  • LX:93 | Like Feeling at Home

    You ask about the effects of my work on others. If I may wax ironical, that is a masculine question. Men always want to be terribly influential, but I see that as somewhat external. Do I imagine myself being influential? No. I want to understand. And if others understand - in the...

    Read more: LX:93 | Like...

  • LX:94 | That We Call Deliberation

    When in the mind of man appetites and aversions, hopes and fears, concerning one and the same thing arise alternately, and diverse good and evil consequences of the doing or omitting the thing propounded come successively into our thoughts, so that sometimes we have an...

    Read more: LX:94 | That...

  • LX:95 | Want of Discretion

    The secret thoughts of a man run over all things, holy, profane, clean, obscene, grave, and light, without shame or blame; which verbal discourse cannot do farther than the judgment shall approve of the time, place, and persons. An anatomist or a physician may speak or...

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  • LX:96 | Genuine Happiness

    Freud always reminds us that the individual seeks happiness. Then the individual creates obstacles so as not to be able to reach it. What does he define in the end? …   …A limited happiness. In fact, psychoanalysis discovers that we, speaking beings, are content in the end...

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  • LX:97 | Artist, Work of Art, Art

    Origin here means that from and by which something is what it is and as it is. What something is, as it is, we call its essence or nature. The origin of something is the source of its nature. The question concerning the origin of the work of art asks about the source of...

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  • LX:98 | If

    if you’re going to try, go all the way.otherwise, don’t even start.   if you’re going to try, go all theway.this could mean losing girlfriends,wives, relatives, jobs andmaybe your mind.   go all the way.it could mean not eating for 3 or4 days.it could mean freezing on apark...

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  • LX:99 | The Things I Say

    I don't say the things I say because they are what I think, but rather I say them with the end in mind of self-destruction, precicely to make sure they are no longer what I think.  To be really certain that from now on, outside of me, they are going to live a life or die...

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